A tale of two chiefs - Motueka River kōrero
The Motueka river is a significant feature of Motueka and our Whakarewa lands. Many of the occupied land areas that were wrongly sold to the New Zealand Company in the 1840’s were alongside the river. But the river was also a point of dispute between two Ngāti Rārua chiefs.
In one version of the early settlement of Motueka, Ngāti Rārua chief Te Poa Karoro and Horoatua of Te Ātiawa, were the first people to occupy the lands about Motueka, and in fact they named the area known as Te Maatu, situated on the south side of the Motueka River. Horoatua claimed the land for him and about 70 others of the Puketapu hapū of Te Ātiawa who were with him, one of which was Merenako, a high-ranking Te Ātiawa ancestor.
Sometime after arriving in the Motueka district, Merenako journeyed up the mouth of the Waiatua stream, situated near Old Pā Hill (Puketawāi). She followed the hillside up the valley to the neighbourhood of what is called Dehra Dhoon. From here she crossed the river and travelled along the foot of the opposite hills, to a place close to the Riuwaka butter factory. Here she saw the Riuwaka swamp which, at that time, covered a significantly large area. Disappointed by what she saw and considering it of no value to her, and difficult swampy land to walk upon, she called it Turi Auraki (tired knees). Merenako and her second husband, Te Poa Kararo (Chief of Ngāti Turangapeke, a hapū of Ngāti Rārua) as well as Merenako, had large land holdings, including in Motueka. This was seen as the catalyst for Te Ātiawa and Ngāti Rārua of Motueka to settle in Motueka as one. Both iwi retained their own identities, with Merenako and her Te Ātiawa land and mana to the south and west of Te Maatu, and Te Poa Karoro retaining his land and mana to the north and east of Te Maatu.
When Pukekōhatu (chief of Ngāti Pareteata, a hapū of Ngāti Rārua) arrived at Motueka he lit a fire on the Motueka side of the river and proclaimed the land as his and his hapū.
Te Poa Kararo however, who arrived in the district with Horoatua, had already claimed the land for him and his hapū, through whenua kite hou (discovery) and taunaha (naming the land) at Te Maatu.
To ensure his desire was fulfilled, Pukekōhatu placed a kanga (curse) over the district by personifying himself as the Motueka River, saying that, “The source thereof is my head and the mouth is my feet.” In other words, Pukekohatu made himself to be the river. The thought, which is quintessentially Māori, was an absolutely effective way of holding onto a tract of whenua, as it brought into operation the iron law of old. The kanga (curse) lay a short distance south of the Motueka River and beyond the area known as Te Maatu.
Te Poa Karoro took up a very defiant attitude towards Pukekōhatu and the laying of his kanga. He went as far to say, “Kia maoa taku umu tangata māna kē Maatu,” meaning, “If anyone occupies Te Maatu, I will cook them in my oven.”
It is said that the argument had originated through Pukekōhatu going to cultivate the land at Te Maatu, which is also said to have been given to him by Merenako. This incensed Te Poa Karoro, as he had apparently made available the land for Te Manutoheroa and the Ngāti Kōmako Te Ātiawa to cultivate. Others say Te Poa Karoro was controlling Pākehā settlement on the land, authorising where Pākehā could and could not live on the Riuwaka side of the river. This was disquieting for Pukekōhatu, who was concerned that if Pakeha settlement continued, there would not be enough land left at Te Maatu for Māori to live upon.
In later years, Pukekōhatu removed his kanga in order to facilitate the opening of the land for development.
This blog was put together from kōrero with kaumātua and kuia.
Raising the level of education – our 2017 scholarship recipients
NRAIT were pleased to again offer our education funding programme in 2017, with a variety of grants and scholarships available for NRAIT registered owners. Our aim is to make education accessible for all owners and to prepare our children and young people to become employable adults with skills that will benefit them and society. So rather than just focusing on tertiary education, we also offered grants towards trades training, adult education, and study assistance for primary and secondary students, a new model we started last year.
As with last year, we had a focus with the scholarships on STEM subjects (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics). STEM subjects are the future required skills and knowledge our whānau need to fulfil jobs, innovate and create new products and services. Aotearoa currently has a skill shortage in these subject areas. We were pleased to receive significantly more applications this year than previous.
We are pleased to announce our 2017 scholarship recipients.
The supreme scholarship is awarded to one recipient each year. It is open to any NRAIT registered owner, enrolled with a New Zealand tertiary institute or training provider. This scholarship is awarded to students who maintain a B+ average throughout their year of study.
Matua was our Supreme Scholarship winner this year, and is continuing his post graduate Masters in Business Administration at Auckland University. Matua is enjoying his studies and the sense of purpose and direction it provides towards his future. He is committed to contributing to the Trust in the future by using his background in medicine and his growing experience in administration and management.
Andrew is our 2017 Postgraduate Scholarship winner. He is currently enrolled in a Master’s of Science (Research) Program at the University of Waikato. In the future Andrew aims to undertake a PhD.
Mariah is one of four tertiary scholarship recipients. This award grants her a maximum contribution of $2,000 per annum to help her fund her studies. She is in her sixth and final year at Victoria University, studying Law, Māori and Anthropology and will be graduating in May next year. She is very motivated to finish her conjoint degree because of the support of her whānau back home. Mariah is passionate about serving the community and helping some of the most vulnerable people in our society, which she has been doing through volunteering while at university, and intends to keep doing this when she finishes her studies.
Ben is another recipient of a tertiary scholarship. He is currently a second-year medical student at Otago University in Dunedin. During his studies, he completed a clinical placement in a rest home, interacting with patients with diseases and disabilities. He has been exposed to many options the medical world has to offer, and is trying to keep as open minded as possible, but still sees himself strongly driven towards becoming a Māori GP with a keen focus on Māori health.
Eden also received a tertiary scholarship, and is currently in her final semester of a Bachelor of Science majoring in Anatomy. She has always had a passion for health and the human body and is now studying what she loves and has an interest in. Eden has picked up two Māori papers this year which have helped her to understand her culture to a deeper level and she plans on continuing studying Māori.
Isabella is the final recipient of a tertiary scholarship for 2017. She is currently studying Health Sciences First Year at the University of Otago in Dunedin. Isabella has always had a keen interest in science so has enjoyed broadening her knowledge. She plans on moving into medicine or medical laboratory science.
Our grant winners are all on the pathway to furthering their education. The grants applied for were across all areas of education, including sports & cultural grants, education grants to assist with fees, and study assist grants for primary and secondary school students wanting additional education support. Congratulations to the following recipients of our 2017 grants; Leanne Clayton, Hana Goodwin, Renee Hayes, Tui Henry, Rangi Kaveney, Waimaire Mana, Kaitlyn Moylan, Baylee Niwa, Hayel Niwa, Zayed Studd, Renee Thomas, Wainui Witika-Park, Kylie Wilson, Dante Matakatea, Kirsty Willison, Xanthe Banks, Haelyn Ngaia, Hunter Ngaia.
We are very proud of all our winners and wish them the best in their future studies and careers.
Taiohi wānanga with Wakatū Incorporation
In September each year, our sister organisation Wakatū takes a group of rangatahi (young people) into the Abel Tasman National Park for a week long wānanga. Each year alternates between boys and girls, and this year, it was the boys turn.
26 descendants of Wakatū tūpuna (ancestors), which includes Ngāti Koata, Ngāti Rārua, Ngāti Tama and Te Ātiawa, attended this year’s Wakatū wānanga. Of the 26 young men who attended, five are also registered owners of Ngāti Rārua Ᾱtiawa Iwi Trust.
The wānanga, a week-long educational pursuit, is designed to advance the personal and cultural development of rangatahi through self-motivation, outdoor pursuits and traditional values. This year, the wānanga involved spending a week in the Abel Tasman National Park, undertaking mentally and physically challenging activities.
Throughout the week, and with these activities, it was a great opportunity for the young men to learn the history of their tūpuna and tikanga (customs) and connect to their culture, language, whenua (land), as well as each other.
The wānanga also taught these young men what the traditional male roles were in Māori society, as well as what it means to be a good role model, thanks to engaging discussions with strong male role models and kaiako (teachers) from the community. These Kaiako on the wānanga made a contribution to the next generation, by supporting the boys’ learning, and teaching them leadership skills. Of the kaiako on the wānanga, three were also NRAIT owners; Eruera Keepa, Bentham Ohia and Tairoa Morrison (pictured below).
All attendees of the wānanga were kindly gifted a Wakatū hoodie, and our NRAIT owners will be receiving their NRAIT basketball singlets in the mail. NRAT has been supporting its members in the experience since 2012.
Wai ora - The significance of our awa
“Rivers are the veins of Papatūānuku, Earth Mother, and the water in them is her lifeblood. Rivers nourish all living beings and link us with ancestors.”
Water is the essence of all life, it is the blood of Mother Earth (Papatūānuku) that supports all people, plants and wildlife. It is a significant part of our culture, as it played a large role in how our tūpuna travelled, lived and survived.
As a source of mahinga kai, a place to collect materials and hāngi stones, as well as being access routes and a means of travel, rivers hold significance for not only for our ancestors, but for us today. Our tūpuna valued rivers and waterways as they were in close proximity of other wāhi tapu, settlements or other historic sites. Many of our people settled near rivers for these reasons.
Not only are rivers and waterways practical, but they also form a large, necessary part of our tribal identity, with many particular rivers and waterways playing a significant role in tribal stories.
Te Puna o Riuwaka (Riuwaka river)
Just 16km out of Motueka, in the Kahurangi National Park, you can find the Riuwaka river. Te Puna (meaning spring of water) o Riuwaka is where the northern branch of the Riuwaka river rises from the Tākaka Hill. The pure water flows underground through limestone caves and marble rocks beneath the Takaka Hill, and pours into a deep, clear pool. The river continues flowing down the hill, running into many pools along the way such as the Crystal Pool. Not only is Te Puna o Riuwaka a place of natural beauty, it is also wāhi tapu for our people. It is a sacred, supernatural place where our tūpuna would visit. Many of our ancestors lived along the Riuwaka river, and would visit Te Puna o Riuwaka, to sustain their spirits as well as cleanse and heal their bodies.
Read more on the healing waters of Te Puna o Riuwaka here.
As with the Riuwaka river, the Motueka river runs through rough hill terrain, with its source at Mount Owen, it then flows down towards Tasman Bay. The river is a large part of Motueka and our Whakarewa lands. Many of the occupied land areas that were wrongly sold to the New Zealand Company were alongside the river. Motueka river is commonly used for recreational purposes such as fishing, swimming and kayaking. Check out this video from Motueka High School, with some students kayaking down the awa.
Make sure you incorporate your awa/roto/moana (river/lake/sea), that you affiliate with in your mihi. If you aren’t quite sure, reach out to extended NRAIT whānau, a kaumatua, or send us an email: firstname.lastname@example.org
To include your awa into your mihi, say ‘Ko Riuwaka te awa’ or ‘Ko Motueka te awa’. You could also mention your roto (lake) and/or your moana (sea).
It is important to our history and culture to grow and develop in the place you belong. Traditionally, that is our tūrangawaewae, and for Ngāti Rārua Ātiawa hapū, that is the Whakarewa lands of Motueka.
Traditionally hapū would stay in the rohe of their marae and move together, but today we move around so easily, and as a result, we live throughout Aotearoa and the world. Even though we’ve spread, we encourage Ngāti Rārua Ātiawa Iwi Trust members to reconnect and return home in the hope that members develop a sense of unity and belonging, deepen their connection and embrace the legacy of our tūpuna.
This year, Jeremy decided to move himself and his whānau back home to Te Tau Ihu from Wellington. Which means his tamariki will grow up alongside their cousins, as well as learn more about their tūpuna. Reconnecting with the whenua and their whānau is important to Jeremy.
Check out this video, and listen to his kōrero about how being home and reconnected has impacted him and his whānau.
The Ngāti Rārua Ātiawa Iwi Trust Board - Our kōrero
The Ngāti Rārua Ātiawa Iwi Trust Board represents a hapū made up of unique members from two iwi, Ngāti Rārua and Te Ātiawa. The members of the hapū are unique because they all descend from a key group of 109 tūpuna, the original owners of the Whakarewa lands in Motueka.
As a Trust today, we own, manage and nurture the land holdings on behalf, and for the benefit of the hapū. But we haven’t always been here, in fact we are a result of hundreds of challenging years. This is our story of how we got here.
The origins of our Trust lie deep within the history of our lands. On October 1841, a hui was held on the shores of Kaiteriteri beach involving 12 Motueka Chiefs and members of The New Zealand Company (the Europeans).
This was a defining moment in our timeline as it marked the day where a promise was made to us that a particular area of land, Te Maatu, would remain ours. The Europeans were granted the right to settle, but not to take all the land, and more certainly, this specific area of land.
It was 12 years later when the land was officially taken by Governor George Grey for the purpose of building a school. He made two Crown Grants to the Bishop of New Zealand, which saw the transfer of 1078 acres of our land that belonged to our ancestors in Motueka given to the Anglican Church. These lands become known as the Whakarewa Estates and the Trust established to manage the estate was known as the Whakarewa School Trust Board.
Although individual Ngāti Rārua and Te Ātiawa descendants were recognised as being the rightful land owners, their permission and compensation was not sought or given for this land transfer, and so began our fight, our struggle and our hardship over the next five to six generations to have our tūrangawaewae returned to us.
We fought by way of submissions, petitions and deputations, which resulted in three major investigations into rightful land ownership.
Yet our lands continued to remain in the hands of Whakarewa School Trust Board.
In the early 1980s, the Ngāti Rārua Council brought up the issue of ownership of the land when the Whakarewa School Trust Board underwent yet another restructure. It was found that the way the property was being used at the time was not in line with what was stated in the Trust deed.
Finally, we started to make some ground.
Support from many Pākehā and Māori people assisted the cause, and in the early 1990s dialogue opened between the Anglican Church and manawhenua tribes.
Whakarewa belongs to us
The efforts of our ancestors were rewarded in 1993 when the Honourable Doug Kidd sponsored a Private Members Bill to return the Whakarewa Estate to the rightful Ngāti Rārua and Te Ātiawa ki Motueka descendants. Nearly 137 years later, the ownership of the lands and assets were returned to the descendants of the original owners, thanks to the passing of this bill. The act called the Ngāti Rārua Ātiawa Iwi Trust Empowering Act 1993, established the Ngāti Rārua Ātiawa Iwi Trust Board we have today.
Prospering but not forgetting
Just like the Whakarewa School Trust Board who had a deed to follow, we too have the same in the form of our Empowering Act. It sets out the purpose of the Trust and the nature of the benefits we provide to the owners of this land.
We separate our work into two sections – asset management and investment so that we can continue thriving and providing benefits to our owners, and the social and cultural arm which assists our owners in areas of education, sporting ambitions and cultural events. Our focus is to provide the Ngāti Rārua Ātiawa ki Motueka hapū with a hand up to achieving their goals and aspirations.
We are proud to be able to continue providing benefits to our members and ensure they have a great quality of life, while recognising the struggles of our tūpuna.
That’s why it’s important to continue telling this kōrero, so the next generation, and the generation after it, know what happened to our tūpuna, why Motueka is important to us as a hapū and to know that together, we are stronger.
Hanareia Ehau-Taumaunu – 2015 Post Graduate Scholarship Recipient
During the current three-month period of our education funding programme (1 June – 31 August), we received a wonderful update from one of our previous recipients on how they have progressed in their education journey so far. Our latest blog is to share NRAIT owner Hanareia Ehau-Taumaunu’s kōrero on what she’s been up to.
In 2015, Hanareia received the NRAIT Post Graduate Scholarship after graduating her Bachelor of Science in biological science, and a Bachelor of Arts in Māori studies and writing. After completing her Bachelor’s degrees, she began studying a Master of Science at The University of Auckland.
Hanareia has just recently received her final grade for her Masters, from these results she will be awarded a Masters in Biological Sciences with First Class Honours. Not only did she achieve this with a top grade, Hanareia was also recently awarded the Fulbright Science and Innovation Graduate Award for 2017 at a ceremony at Parliament.
Hanareia and her whānau at Parliament in June to receive her Fulbright Award.
During her studies, she took a variety of papers based in plant biology, biotechnology, plant pathology and protein interactions. In her research, Hanareia spent time working alongside the Next generation bio pesticides programme, which is aiming to develop environmentally safe alternatives to pesticides currently used to control insect pests and diseases that limit productivity in the pastoral and horticultural sectors.
As Hanareia puts it, this area of study is beneficial to Māori, especially for Ngāti Rārua Ātiawa ki Motueka hapū, as our whenua is fertile land for growing kai, and diseases and insect pests can have a devastating impact.
“Take all the opportunities that come to you and do not be afraid to seek them out yourselves. Putting myself out there and connecting to people is the best thing I have done to further my career and networks in science. Always give back to those that have helped you on your journey and inspire those that will be ngā rangatira o āpōpō. Connecting science and Māoritanga can give you a uniqueness that is desired in Aotearoa and is needed to assist Māori iwi, hapū and whānau to grow and support their goals and aspirations.
I would like to once again thank NRAIT and whānau for the support I received, as it without a doubt allowed me to pursue my goals and the fantastic outcome for my MSc.
Hanareia hopes that one day Māori scientists will be leading the charge on many fronts to ensure Māori are being heard and represented. Protecting our taonga species and crops are important in a world that is constantly changing and new threats are forming.
You can read more about Hanareia’s journey here.
This isn’t the final step in Hanareia’s education. Next month she will be travelling over to America to pursue her PhD in Plant Pathology at Penn State University.
Whakamihi Hanareia, NRAIT and your whānau are extremely whakahī (proud), and we’re grateful to you for sharing this kōrero.
We are proud to continue our support for our hapū’s education pathways. Through our education funding programme NRAIT owners can apply to receive grants for anything from trades training through to post graduate degrees like Hanaeria. To apply for an education scholarship or grant click here.
All photos taken and supplied by Naomi Aporo.
This month, over Queen’s Birthday long weekend, Taranaki based weaver Mako Jones visited Te Āwhina Marae to share her mōhio (knowledge) of weaving. A weaving wānanga, was held for experienced weavers of Te Tau Ihu. During the weekend, those who attended used techniques from our ancestors to weave two whāriki (floor mats).
The floor mats woven over the long weekend were created by the group for the purpose of whāriki kopaki for tangihanga.
Historically, floor mats were of great importance before European settlers arrived. As the whare had dirt floors whāriki were used as the basic floor covering. Finer floor mats were made for sleeping, which lay over the top of whāriki, and for special occasions, such as for the birth of a child. The use of whāriki in the place of a coffin is now becoming an alternative option for our whānau.
The transfer of knowledge from our kaumātua down through the generations is essential for keeping our culture and traditions alive and well. This kaupapa is important for preserving our culture, and that’s why the Ngāti Rārua Ātiawa Iwi Trust are proud to support and sponsor the next weaving wānanga, which will be held in early March, 2018.
The reappearance of Matariki, a cluster of 7 stars, signals the new year. In Aotearoa, Matariki is the Māori new year, and is when we rejoice in new beginnings, remember the past and celebrate the present. Some iwi celebrate Matariki at different times of the year, but June 24th marks the start of Matariki for most New Zealanders. It is also a time to celebrate and give respect to the whenua, and celebrate the tangata.
During Matariki we also take the time to look back at those who have passed and have been returned to Papatūānuku. Historically our ancestors would view the Matariki stars with grief, and tell Matariki the names of those who had gone since the stars set.
Traditionally, tohunga (an expert) would look to Matariki as a prediction for the next harvest. If the stars were bright it showed a warm, favourable season for planting, which ensures a good harvest. If the stars were unclear or close together, then it was a negative sign. The time for planting would depend on these signs, with the good sign of bright stars meaning that planting would happen earlier.
During this time of remembrance, we also celebrate the future through different rituals and activities. Celebrations include the creation and flight of kites and lanterns, cultural performances and waiata from our tamariki, and hangi. We also celebrate the rising of Matariki by re-telling our kōrero to our whānau.
Events in the rohe
There are many events around the rohe to celebrate and recognise Matariki. There’s a lot to be learned so we hope you get the chance to get along to something nearby.
Matariki Open Day – Te Āwhina Marae – this event was on Friday 9June. Did you make it along?
Matariki Lantern Parade – Victory Community Centre, June 14th 3 - 8pm
Matariki Celebrations – Ngāti Koata Trust, June 24th 9am – 9pm
Keep up to date with these events through their Facebook pages.
Education funding - applications now open
The Ngāti Rārua Ātiawa Iwi Trust’s education grant and scholarship funding programme is now open for applications for 2017, and as with each year, we open applications for 3 months to NRAIT owners who meet the criteria for each grant.
Our aim is to make education accessible for all owners and to prepare our children and young people to become employable adults with skills that will benefit them and society. So rather than just focusing on tertiary education, we also offer grants towards trades training, adult education, and study assistance for primary and secondary students.
A big focus for us now however, and into the future, is also developing people to work in key industries where Aotearoa is currently lacking a younger workforce, such as science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). We encourage our owners, who are about to enter tertiary education, to consider these areas of study, and explore our funding options to support them throughout their education journey.
Business management and other related subjects are also an important focus area for us to continue the entrepreneurial legacy of our tūpuna. These skills are also important for the Trust, as we need to continue bringing new talent, with the right skills and experience, on board to drive the organisation forward.
However, if you’re looking to take the next step in learning te reo, learning a trade, or any other adult education programme, the grants are available to help you achieve this.
We are pleased with the success of our education funding recipients last year, and we look forward to supporting more of our owners in their studies.
Applications are now open, and can only be done online. These must be completed by 31 August 2017. If you have questions about the application process, please contact Nichola Dixon at email@example.com.